Carol Dweck distinguishes the two categories 1. Growth mindset versus 2. Fixed mindset by grouping individuals based on their behaviour, specifically their reaction to failure.
Those with a “fixed mindset” believe that abilities are mostly innate and interpret failure as the lack of necessary basic abilities, while those with a “growth mindset” believe that they can acquire any given ability provided they invest effort or study.
Dweck argues that the growth mindset “will allow a person to live a less stressful and more successful life”.
Dweck’s definition of fixed and growth mindsets :
“In a fixed mindset students believe their basic abilities, their intelligence, their talents, are just fixed traits. They have a certain amount and that’s that, and then their goal becomes to look smart all the time and never look dumb.
In a growth mindset students understand that their talents and abilities can be developed through effort, good teaching and persistence. They don’t necessarily think everyone’s the same or anyone can be Einstein, but they believe everyone can get smarter if they work at it.”
Courtesy – Wikipedia